FOOD - theory


Lithuanian Cuisine




Lithuanian cuisine features the products suited to its cool and moist northern climate: barley, potatoes, rye, beets, greens, and mushrooms are locally grown, and dairy products are one of its specialties. Since it shares its climate and agricultural practices with Eastern Europe, Lithuanian cuisine has much in common with other Eastern European and Jewish cuisines. Nevertheless, it has its own distinguishing features, which were formed by a variety of influences during the country’s long and difficult history.

Because of their long common history, Lithuanians and Poles share many dishes and beverages. Thus there are similar Lithuanian and Polish versions of dumplings (pierogi or koldūnai), doughnuts (pączki or spurgos), and crepes (blini or blynai). German traditions also influenced Lithuanian cuisine, introducing pork and potato dishes, such as potato pudding (kugelis) and potato sausages (vėdarai), as well as the baroque tree cake known asšakotis. The most exotic of all the influences is Eastern (Karaite) cuisine, and the dishes kibinai and čeburekai are popular in Lithuania. The popular «Torte Napoleon» was introduced during Napoleon's passage through Lithuania in the 19th century.

Cepelinai, potato dumplings stuffed with meat, curd cheese or mushrooms, is the most famous national dish. It is popular among Lithuanians all over the world. Other national foods include dark rye bread, cold beet soup (šaltibarščiai), and kugelis (a baked potato pudding), smoked sausage and vedarai (cooked potatoes and sausage stuffed into pig intestines). Lithuanian cuisine also include suktiniai (arba zrazai) - fried beef stuffed with salt pork, crushed garlic and caraway seeds and Lithuanian guliašas, that is a quite different from Hungarian goulash.  Some of these foods are also common in neighboring countries. Lithuanian cuisine is generally unknown outside Lithuanian communities. Most Lithuanian restaurants outside Lithuania are located in areas with a heavy Lithuanian presence.

Every region in Lithuania has preserved its original traditional dishes. The Aukštaitija residents are experts in flour and freshwater fish dishes and their culinary heritage is member of the European Culinary Heritage. The Žemaitija residents are excellent cooks of potatoe, vegetable and dairy meals. People from Suvalkija are unrivalled in smoked meat products. Residents of Dzūkija specialize in dishes of forest products as well as cakes. The most savoury smoked fish can be tested in Lithuania Minor and on both shores of the Curonian Lagoon.


In Lithuania people usually eat three meals each day. Breakfast is between 7 and 9 am, the main meal between 12 and 3 pm, and a lighter meal between 6 and 8 pm. In rural areas, meals are eaten earlier than in urban areas. For the midday meal most people either go home or eat in cafeterias at work. Toasts are often made during meals, whether guests are present or not.











Spanish cuisine consists of a variety of dishes, which stem from differences in geography, culture and climate. It is heavily influenced by seafood available from the waters that surround the country, and reflects the country's deep maritime roots. Spain's extensive history with many cultural influences has led to an array of unique cuisines with literally thousands of recipes and flavours. It is also renowned for its health benefits and fresh ingredients, as Mediterranean diet.



Arroz con leche (rice pudding)

Calamares a la romana (Fried squid)

Sopa de marisco

Cocido montañés typical stew from Cantabria

Chorizo (spicy sausage)

Gazpacho a chilled tomato soup from Andalusia (light and refreshing)

Percebe typical from Galicia

Fabada Asturiana (bean stew)


Jamón serrano (cured ham)

Butifarra a kind of sausage from Catalonia

Pa amb tomàquet, rustic bread and fresh, chopped tomato, oil, herbs etc. (Catalonia)

Paella (saffron rice)

Tortilla de patatas or tortilla española (potato omelette)

Gofio, roasted flour used in a type of porridge in the Canary islands.

Meat is also very popular in Spanish cuisine; sheep, lamb, pork, and beef are staples.


Today, Spanish cooking is "in fashion". There are many famous chefs as:


Juan Mari Arzak

Santi Santamaría

Martín Berasategui 

Karlos Arguiñano


Canarian cuisine refers to the typical dishes and ingredients in the cuisine of the Canary Islands. These include plentiful fish, generally roasted, papas arrugadas (a potato dish),mojos (such as mojo picón), and wine from the malvasia grape.

Mojo (pronounced mO-ho) is a sauce which may be orange, red, or green depending on its ingredients. Mojo is heavy in garlic and can be moderately spicy, referred to as mojo picón. It is usually made of oil, vinegar, salt, red pepper, thyme, oregano, coriander and several other spices. This is the father to all mojos of Latin America, especially Cuba,Puerto Rico, and Venezuela, due to heavy Canarian emigration, and have also influenced the cuisines of the non-Hispanic Caribbean islands. 

Papas arrugadas are small unskined potatoes which have been boiled in salt water and are usually served with chicken and topped with mojo. Their name in Spanish means "wrinkled potatoes" and refers to their condition after being boiled and served.

One very typical Canarian product is gofio, a flour created by grinding roasted sweetcorn. Gofio is produced locally and is added to many foods and also to warm milk as a drink, as well as made into a dough-like food called pella and eaten alongside meals. It is also made into a hot dip.

Canarians widely use olive oil in their foods, which are often prepared from scratch.

Other typical Canarian foods include ropa vieja ("old clothes"), a dish of chicken and beef mixed with potatoes and garbanzos (chickpeas), and potaje, a generic name for one of many stews. Canarian ropa vieja is the father to Cuban ropa vieja through Canarian emigration.

A sweet indulgence is bienmesabe which mean in Spanish "Tastes good to me". It's a paste made from grounded almonds, lemon rind and eggs. It's normally served as a dessert, nowadays sometime with cream or ice cream.



source of information: Wikipedia


Turkish Cuisine

Breakfast: A typical Turkish breakfast consists of cheese (beyaz peynir, kaşar etc.), butter, olives, eggs, tomatoes, cucumbers, jam, honey, and kaymak. Sucuk (spicy Turkish sausage), pastırma, börek, simit, poğaça and soups are eaten as a morning meal in Turkey. A common Turkish speciality for breakfast is called menemen, which is prepared with tomatoes, green peppers, onion, olive oil and eggs. Invariably, Turkish tea is served at breakfast. The Turkish word for breakfast, kahvaltı, means "before coffee" (kahve, 'coffee'; altı, 'under'). 
        Tea and Bagel                                     Turkish breakfast
SARMA: Sarma is a savory dish of grape, cabbage or chard leaves rolled around a filling usually based on minced meat, or a sweet dish of filo dough wrapped around a filling often of various kinds of chopped nuts. It is found in the cuisines of the former Ottoman Empire from the Middle East to the Balkans and Central Europe
MANTI: Turkish pasta that consists of folded triangles of dough filled with minced meat, often with minced onions and parsley. It is typically served hot topped with garlic yoghurt and melted butter or warmed olive oil, and a range of spices such as oregano, dried mint, ground sumac, and red pepper powder. The combination of meat-filled dough with yoghurt differentiates it from other dumplings such as tortellini, ravioli, and Chinese wonton. Mantı is usually eaten as a main dish. Minced chicken and quail meats are also used to prepare mantı in some regions of Turkey.
KEBAP: Kebab (or originally kabab[1]) is a wide variety of skewered meals originating in the Middle East and later on adopted in Turkey, Azerbaijan, Balkans, Spain, as well as Central and South Asia, that are now found worldwide. In English, kebab with no qualification generally refers more specifically to shish kebab (Turkish: "şiş kebap") served on the skewer.[2] In the Middle East, however, kebab refers to meat that is cooked over or next to flames; large or small cuts of meat, or even ground meat; it may be served on plates, in sandwiches, or in bowls. The traditional meat for kebab is lamb, but depending on local tastes and taboos, it may now be beef, goat, chicken or fish. Like other ethnic foods brought by travellers, the kebab has become part of everyday cuisine in many countries around the globe.
ÇİĞ KÖFTE: Çiğ köfte means 'raw meatball'. It can also be written as one word, çiğköfte. It is a favorite Turkish snack and a specialty of southeastern Turkey, especially Şanlıurfa.
Bulgur is kneaded with chopped onions and water until it gets soft. Then tomato and pepper paste, spices and very finely ground beef are added. This absolutely fatless raw mincemeat is treated with spices while kneading the mixture, which is said to "cook" the meat. Lastly, green onions, fresh mint and parsley are mixed in.
One spice that is associated with çiğ köfte, and with Şanlıurfa as a whole, is isot, a very dark, almost blackish paprika, prepared in a special manner, and which is considered as indispensable for an authentically local preparation of çiğ köfte (and also of lahmacun). Although, isot is famous as the special dried pepper that is locally produced by farmers of Şanlıurfa, in fact, it is a general word used for pepper in Şanlıurfa.










Turkish Delight



Good Appetite


Source: wikipedia



Slovak cuisine varies slightly, though sometimes dramatically, from region to region. It was influenced by the traditional cuisine of its neighbours and it influenced these as well. The origins of traditional Slovak cuisine can be traced to times when the majority of the population lived in villages, in self-sustenance, with very limited food imports and exports and with no modern means of food preservation or processing. This gave rise to a cuisine heavily dependent on a number of staple foods that could stand the hot summers and cold winters. These included wheat, potatoes, milk and milk products, pork meat, sauerkraut and onion. To a lesser degree beef, poultry, lamb and goat, eggs, a few other local vegetables, fruit and wild mushrooms were traditionally eaten. All these were usually produced and processed by families themselves with some local trade at the country markets. Wheat was ground, and bread, dumplings and noodles were made from it. Potatoes were mostly boiled or processed into potato dough. Milk was processed into a wide range of products such as butter, cream, sour cream, buttermilk, and various types of cheese etc. Typical pork products include sausages, a local kind of blood sausages, smoked bacon, and lard. Spices were not widely used, and animal fats and butter were used instead of cooking oils. Main drinks included fresh and sour milk, and beer. Contemporary Slovak cuisine is widely influenced by various world cuisines and uses many different ingredients, spices and industrially processed foods. (Wikipedia)

The most popular dishes are:


  • Zemiakové placky (potato pancakes fried in oil), also called Haruľa 
  • Žemľovka (bread pudding)
  • Granadír or Granadírsky pochod, also known as Grenadír marš
  • Ryžový nákyp (rice pudding)
  • Orechovník, a sweet Nut roll
  • Makovník (poppy seed roll) 
  • Bratislavské rožteky
  • Segedin Goulash (pork stew with sauerkraut and cream or sour cream, usually served with steamed dumplings (knedľa).
  • Rezeň (breaded pork schnitzel) 



Traditional sweets and cookies

 Slovak traditional sweets are usually home baked and harder to find in stores.
  • Laskonky: fluffy dough with walnuts and creamy filling
  • Mačacie oči
  • Trotle: 2 layers of cookie-like round tarts filled with chocolate cream and half-dipped in dark chocolate.
  • Vajcový koňak: the equivalent of eggnog.
  • Medovníčky
  • Medvedie labky
  • Trdelnik or Skalický trdelnik, a traditional cake baked on a rotating spit over open fire
  • Haboše
  • Čeregi
  • Makové pupáky (poppy dumplings)

    Eating habits

    Traditionally the main meal of the day is lunch, eaten around noon. However, changing work routine has altered this in the recent decades; today, it is not uncommon for many Slovaks to eat their main meal in the evening. Lunch in Slovakia usually consists of soup AND a main meal.


Since ancient times the food was very important to the Greeks and accompanies all the important moments of their lives.

Greece is a Mediterranean country with a very friendly atmosphere and a lot of fruits vegetables flowers and herbs grown on the land.

The food in Greece are based on olive oil onion mature vegetables and tomato basil oregano thyme. All meals are accompanied by bread with crispy crust that is necessary at each table.
In celebration of Christmas dominates the pork cooked in various ways depending on the area you visit in Greece

 Greeks celebrate Easter with a lamb on the spit special  soup with lamb and red colored eggs.
For many celebrations are particularly food.
The cuisine of my country is deeply inspired by oriental cooking.
 The most typical dishes are:

Moussakas , pastitsio , giros,

        soutzoukakia,  bean, chickpea soup, zucchini stuffed with minced meat, peppers stuffed with rice,
imam, shoes (it is a food  with eggplant), mussels, calamari, spinach pies or cheese

gemista (peppers and tomatoes stuffed with rice and minced)

sarmathakia (grape leaves stuffed with rice and herms)




feta (cheese )


gemista (peppers and tomatoes stuffed with rice and minced


mousakas- eggplant and potatoes with minced meat and bechamel

giouvarlakia -soup with meatballs



octapus with spaggeti



 fasolada -soup with beans


souvlaki pita 

a thin pie filled with pieces of pork fries

giouvetsi lamb with pasta cooked in a clay pot


souvlaki pieces of pork



stifado rabbit cooked with small onions



source: wikipedia

Polish cuisine has evolved over the centuries due to historical circumstances. Polish national cuisine shares some similarities with other Central European and Eastern European traditions as well as French and Italian similarities. It is rich in meat, especially pork, chicken and beef (depending on the region) and winter vegetables (cabbage in the dish bigos), and spices. It is also characteristic in its use of various kinds of noodles the most notable of which are kluski as well as cereals. Generally speaking, Polish cuisine is hearty and uses a lot of cream and eggs. The traditional dishes are often demanding in preparation.



clear chicken soup with nuddles

tomato soup


pickled cucumber soup

beetroot soup - borsch


sour rye meal mash - żurek

pork stake or cutlet coated in breadcrumbs

minced pork coated in breadcrumbs

pork knuckles cooked with vegetables

bigos - sauerkraut and meat stew

pierogi - dumplings


kielbasa - smoked sausage

gołabki - stuffed cabbage leaves

silesian roulade

silesian dumplings




poppy seed cake


pączki - polish donuts



pictures :</p>






European cuisine, or alternatively Western cuisine, is a generalised term collectively referring to the cuisines of Europe and other Western countries.European cuisine or Western cuisine includes that of Europe including (depending on the definition) that of Russia, as well as non-indigenous cuisines of North America, Australasia, Oceania, and Latin America, which derive substantial influence from European settlers in those regions. The term is used by East Asians to contrast with Asian styles of cooking. (This is analogous to Westerners referring collectively to the cuisines of East Asian countries as Asian cuisine.) When used by Westerners, the term may sometimes refer more specifically to cuisine in Europe or continental; in this context, a synonym is Continental cuisine, especially in British English.(wikipedia)

 Romanian Cuisine 

The rich and tasty food in Romania is an influence of foreign settlers that have occupied the land in the past. Nations such as Greeks, Hungarians, Germans and Turks. These past influences have allowed Romania to create its is own unique gastronomy. Pork is the favourite main dish among most Romanians but you will also find great beef, lamb and chicken dishes. Savouring fish dishes are typical of the Danube Delta. Most meals are complemented by soup which is a national specialty in Romania. Also a variety of delicious cakes can be found on special events and holidays.

Here are a few of Romania's national dishes not to be missed:


Perhaps the one dish that is most talked about as a  Romanian traditions food is the sarmale. In the Romanian language, sarmale means cabbage or grape leaves stuffed with ground pork, rice, and sometimes nuts. The sarmale are served with sour cream, chilli and mămăliga on the side. The mămăliga is some sort of corn porridge that accompanies many dishes, as an alternative to bread.



COIRBA - A sour soup made from fermented bran, bacon, potatoes and beef or chicken.

MITITEI (Pronounced Meech) - Minced Meat Rolls with aromatic herbs.

TOCHITURA - A hearty meat stew seasoned with onions and/or spices.
MAMALIGA - Made from corn, a staple food that can be prepared in a variety of ways.







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