ART - theory

TUrkish Art Theory


Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can produce patterns similar to smooth marble or other stone. The patterns are the result of colour floated on either plain water or a viscous solution known as size, and then carefully transferred to an absorbent surface, such as paper or fabric. Through several centuries, people have applied marbled materials to a variety of surfaces. It is often employed as a writing surface for calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery. Part of its appeal is that each print is a unique monotype.


Apart from the Western and Byzantine traditions, there is another group of Asian traditions, which is generally more illustrative in nature, and from origins in manuscript book decoration also developed into single-sheet small paintings to be kept in albums, which are also called miniatures, as the Western equivalents in watercolour and other mediums are not. These include Persian miniatures, and their Mughal, Ottoman and other Indian offshoots.


Calligraphy (from Greek κάλλος kallos "beauty" + γραφή graphẽ "writing") is a type of visual art related to writing. It is the design and execution of lettering with a broad tip instrument or brush in one stroke (as opposed to built up lettering, in which the letters are drawn.) (Mediavilla 1996: 17). A contemporary definition of calligraphic practice is "the art of giving form to signs in an expressive, harmonious and skillful manner" (Mediavilla 1996: 18). The story of writing is one of aesthetic evolution framed within the technical skills, transmission speed(s) and material limitations of a person, time and place (Diringer 1968: 441). A style of writing is described as a script, hand or alphabet (Fraser and Kwiatkowski 2006; Johnston 1909: Plate 6).


Modern calligraphy ranges from functional hand-lettered inscriptions and designs to fine-art pieces where the abstract expression of the handwritten mark may or may not compromise the legibility of the letters (Mediavilla 1996). Classical calligraphy differs from typography and non-classical hand-lettering, though a calligrapher may create all of these; characters are historically disciplined yet fluid and spontaneous, at the moment of writing (Pott 2006 and 2005; Zapf 2007 and 2006).


Calligraphy continues to flourish in the forms of wedding and event invitations, font design/typography, original hand-lettered logo design, religious art, announcements/graphic design/commissioned calligraphic art, cut stone inscriptions and memorial documents. It is also used for props and moving images for film and television, testimonials, birth and death certificates, maps, and other works involving writing (see for example Letter Arts Review; Propfe 2005; Geddes and Dion 2004). Some of the finest works of modern calligraphy are charters and letters patent issued by monarchs and officers of state in various countries   .


During the Kofun period of Japan, Sue ware was decorated with greenish natural ash glazes. From 552 to 794 AD, differently coloured glazes were introduced. The three coloured glazes of the Tang Dynasty were frequently used for a period, but were gradually phased out; the precise colours and compositions of the glazes have not been recovered. Natural ash glaze, however, was commonly used throughout the country.


Two panels of earthenware tiles painted with polychrome glazes over a white glaze. (19th) From between the eighth century, the use of glazed ceramics was prevalent in Islamic art and Islamic pottery, usually in the form of elaborate pottery.Tin-opacified glazing was one of the earliest new technologies developed by the Islamic potters. The first Islamic opaque glazes can be found as blue-painted ware in Basra, dating to around the 8th century. Another significant contribution was the development of stoneware, originating from 9th century Iraq. Other centres for innovative ceramic pottery in the Islamic world included Fustat (from 975 to 1075), Damascus (from 1100 to around 1600) and Tabriz (from 1470 to 1550).


In the 13th century, flower designs were painted with red, blue, green, yellow and black over glazes. Over glazes became very popular because of the particular look they gave ceramics.

Showing 1 result.


Lithuanian Art and Applied Art



It is known that first art creations appeared approximately 40.000 years BC.  First manifestations of art took place in Spain, Old Egypt, Old Greece. Painting, sculpture, applied arts flourished there as well as the profession of artist was really reputable. No one says it is not reputable nowadays, however, usually it is pretty hard nowadays to make one`s pale from only painting for example. In addition, the real professionalism is only accepted when the art works get an extremely favorable response from art critics and the consumer society. 

The applied art nowadays is more for displaying rather than for using in daily life. The further technologies go, the less practical features society see in creations of applied art. Only for decorations, creation of visual beauty or symbols this art branch is necessary nowadays. In Lithuania the most popular techniques of the applied art are ceramics, textile and glass. First professional specialists of applied art in Lithuania appeared in the 20th century when in 1931 in Kaunas there a study of ceramic was established. Lithuanians then, however, refused to understand the foreign art elements so the creators recoiled upon elements of Lithuanian folk and ethnography. Later the understanding of beauty changed, the soviet press forced artists to create only in ideological socialistic realism style. Luckily, the Lithuanian moderation helped the artist to learn how to use the Lithuanian heritage while understanding that present is just a development.

n Lithuania there used to and still is living and creating a pretty large number of an outstanding artists. The most famous Lithuanian classicism painter was Pranciškus Smuglevičius (1745-1807). As usually during the 18-19th centuries, the painter used to paint canvas of religious, historic themes. In paintings he also eternalized architectural monuments in Vilnius, the most important events in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania also scenes of simple daily life. The famous painter formed as one of the first  creators of classicism style in Europe in the 18th century. Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis (1875-1911) was the versatile art genius , both painter, composer and culture figure. Approximately 500 his paintings distinguished in new forms and new coloring. His art works got great attention by local and foreign societies, symbolism and  space painting astonished everyone. His most famous works are the 4 painting sonatas “Allegro”, “Andante”, “Scherzo” and “Finale”. Antanas Žmuidzinavičius (1876-1966), Lithuanian painter, collector and public figure mostly created fascinating landscapes, portraits, banners, formatted books. The famous Devil`s museum in Kaunas was established not without his help. Large part of the exhibition visitors see nowadays was collected by this famous artist. Because of strong efforts by these artists of the 20th century first art exposition was opened in Lithuania in 1906. In 1907 the association of artists was established which as the cultural public organization implementing purposes of inspiring and developing cultural life in Lithuania. One of the most famous Lithuanian artists of the 20th century is Vytautas Kasiulis (1918 - 1995) whose paintings are well appreciable in the whole Western World. The talented artists mostly created in Paris. His works were 2 times elected to decorate the "Times" journal cover. 

The visual art is conditioned by attitude and truth that lies inside the artist. Nevertheless,  watching and comparing the variety of art works  reveals the real particularity of Lithuanian spirit.


  M. K. Čiurlionis. „Vyties preliudas"     M. K. ČiurlionisP. Smuglevičius. "Agripina perkelia savo vyro Germaniko palaikus". ŽMA   

P. Smuglevičius





A. Žmuidzinavičius




Greek art began in the prehistoric Cycladic and Minoan civilizations.

The art of ancient Greece has exercised an enormous influence on the culture of many countries from ancient times until the present, particularly in the areas of sculpture and architecture. In the West, the art of the Roman Empire was largely derived from Greek models. In the East, Alexander the Great's conquests initiated several centuries of exchange between Greek, Central Asian and Indian cultures, resulting in Greco-Buddhist art, with ramifications as far as Japan. Following the Renaissance in Europe, the humanist aesthetic and the high technical standards of Greek art inspired generations of European artists. Pottery was either red with black designs or black with red designs.







Byzantine art is the term created for the Eastern Roman Empire from about the 5th century until the fall of Constantinople in 1453. (The Roman Empire during this period is conventionally known as the Byzantine Empire.)

Byzantine art grew from the art of ancient Greece and, at least before 1453, never lost sight of its classical heritage, but was distinguished from it in a number of ways. The most profound of these was that the humanist ethic of ancient Greek art was replaced by the Christian ethic. If the purpose of classical art was the glorification of man, the purpose of Byzantine art was the glorification of God.

In place of the nude, the figures of God the Father, Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary and the saints and martyrs of Christian tradition were elevated and became the dominant - indeed almost exclusive - focus of Byzantine art. One of the most important forms of Byzantine art was, and still is, the icon: an image of Christ, the Virgin (particularly the Virgin and Child), or a saint, used as an object of veneration in Orthodox churches and private homes.



The term Cretan School describes an important school of icon painting, also known as Post-Byzantine art, which flourished while Crete was under Venetian rule during the late Middle Ages, reaching its climax after the Fall of Constantinople, becoming the central force in Greek painting during the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. The Cretan artists developed a particular style of painting under the influence of both Eastern and Western artistic traditions and movements. The most famous product of the school, El Greco, was the most successful of the many artists who tried to build a career in Western Europe.

Modern Greek art, after the independence and the creation of the modern Greek state, began to be developed around the time of Romanticism and the Greek artists absorbed many elements from their European colleagues, resulting in the culmination of the distinctive style of Greek Romantic art.



FASIANOS                                           GAITHS                                                       GYZHS                               IAKOVIDHS


The art of Slovakia can be traced back to the Middle Ages, when some of the greatest masterpieces of the country's history were created. Significant figures from this period included the many Masters, among them the Master Paul of Levoča and Master MS. More contemporary art can be seen in the shadows of:

Koloman Sokol,

Miloš Alexander Bazovský,

Martin Benka,

Mikuláš Galanda,

Ľudovít Fulla,

Július Koller,

Mária Bartuszová,

Stanislav Filko.

Roman Ondák, Blažej Baláž (in the 21st century).




1. Peter BOHÚŇ                 The portrait of Jan Francisci

2. Jozef HANULA               The Girl with the Flower


3. Martin BENKA    Two  Women


4. Janko ALEXY  Jánošík


5. Ľudovít FULLA Madonna in Red


6. Mikuláš GALANDA                                                      Mother



7. Vincent HLOŽNÍK      The Arabian Night


8. Ján KULICH       Svätopluk


9. Mária MEDVECKÁ     The Bunch of Flovers


10. Štefan CPIN       Spring


11. Andy WARHOL    Self Portrait




Polish art has always reflected European trends while maintaining its unique character. The Kraków school of Historicist painting developed by Jan Matejko produced monumental portrayals of customs and significant events in Polish history. Stanisław Witkiewicz was an ardent supporter of Realism in Polish art, its main representative being Jozef Chełmoński. The Młoda Polska (Young Poland) movement witnessed the birth of modern Polish art, and engaged in a great deal of formal experimentation led by Jacek Malczewski (Symbolism), Stanisław Wyspiański, Józef Mehoffer, and a group of Polish Impressionists. Artists of the twentieth-century Avant-Garde represented various schools and trends. The art of Tadeusz Makowski was influenced by Cubism; while Władysław Strzemiński and Henryk Stażewski worked within the Constructivist idiom. Distinguished contemporary artists include Roman Opałka, Leon Tarasewicz, Jerzy Nowosielski, Wojciech Siudmak, Mirosław Bałka, and Katarzyna Kozyra and Zbigniew Wąsiel in the younger generation. The most celebrated Polish sculptors include Xawery Dunikowski, Katarzyna Kobro, Alina Szapocznikow and Magdalena Abakanowicz. Since the inter-war years, Polish art and documentary photography has enjoyed worldwide recognition. In the sixties the Polish Poster School was formed, with Henryk Tomaszewski and Waldemar Świerzy at its head.





Olga Boznańska

A girl witha teddy bear

Józef Marian Chełmoński

Indian summer

Jerzy Kossak

Meeting at the fence

Juliusz Kossak

A boy on the horse

Wojciech Kossak

Marshal Pilsudski and his horse Kasztanka

Tadeusz Makowski

Three children


Jacek Malczewski

Merry-go-round in Zakopane

Jan Matejko



Józef Mehoffer

Strange garden

Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz

 World creation

Leon Wyczółkowski

Tatra Mountains


Stanisław Wyspiański

A girl with a vase of flowers





Western art is the art of the North American, South American, Oceanian and European countries, and art created in the forms accepted by those countries.

Written histories of Western art often begin with the art of the Ancient Middle East, Ancient Egypt and the Ancient Aegean civilisations, dating from the 3rd millennium BC. Parallel with these significant cultures, art of one form or another existed all over Europe, wherever there were people, leaving signs such as carvings, decorated artifacts and huge standing stones. However a consistent pattern of artistic development within Europe becomes clear only with the art of Ancient Greece, adopted and transformed by Rome and carried; with the Empire, across much of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East.